Edition 1.3

5 February 2012

 

To print use PDF file here

Return to Table of Contents

 

History of the Ancient and Modern Hebrew Language

By David Steinberg

David.Steinberg@houseofdavid.ca

Home page http://www.houseofdavid.ca/

http://www.adath-shalom.ca/history_of_hebrewtoc.htm 

 

Excursus 3

Some Key Differences Between Biblical and Israeli Hebrew

 

o        Table 38 - Some Key Phonemic Distinctions in EBHP, TH and IH

o        Table 39 - Original Typical Semitic 3 Way Opposition in EBHP and TH Reduced to 2 Way in IH with Loss of Emphatics

o        Table 40 - Sound Shifts Between EBHP and IH

o        Table 41 - Some Impacts of Sound Shifts Between EBHP, TH and IH

o        Table 42 - Verbal Stems (Binyanim) in EBHP TH, and IHConsonants that Were Distinct and Phonemic in the First Temple Period that Have Merged in Modern Pronunciation

 


Table 38

Some Key Phonemic Distinctions in *EBHP, TH and IH

Item

*EBHP

(c. 850-550 BCE)

TH

(c. 850 CE)

IH

(present)

Location of Stressed Syllable in Words

phonemic

not graphically marked in consonantal text

phonemic

Tiberian accent sign identifies syllable stress.

phonemic

not graphically marked in unpointed text

Gemination i.e. Consonantal Doubling or Lengthening

phonemic[1]

not graphically marked in consonantal text[2]

phonemic but with very light phonemic load[3]

Marked by dagesh forte/ḥazaq

non-phonemic and not graphically marked. Germination that exists (e.g. דיברתי pronounced [diˈbarrәti]) not related to its function or location in Biblical Hebrew

Vowel Quality

phonemic

phonemic[4]

phonemic

Vowel Quantity

phonemic

non-phonemic and not indicated by vowel system except for ultra short vowels

non-phonemic

 

 

Table 39 - Original Typical Semitic 3 Way Opposition in EBHP and TH Reduced to 2 Way in IH with Loss of Emphatic Consonants

Place of Articulation

 

Voiced[5]

Voiceless[6]

Emphatic

Dentals

EBHP (c. 850-550 BCE) and TH (c. 850 CE)

ד = /d/ [d]

(דלל "to be thin, poor")

ת = /t/ [t]

(תלם "furrow")

(תלל "to mock")

ט = /ṭ/ []

(טלם a place name and possibly also a noun meaning "black" or the like)

(טלל "to resonate")

BHIH
[BHIH] = [IH]

and [THCSP IS-ENG] (present)

ד = /d/ [d]

(דלל "to be thin, poor")

ת = /t/ [t]

identical in pronunciation to
ט= /ṭ/ [t]

(תלם "furrow")

(תלל "to mock" identical to טלל "to resonate")

non-existent

Sibilants

EBHP (c. 850-550 BCE) and TH (c. 850 CE)

ז = /z/ [z]

(פרז "to be isolated")

ס = /s/ [s]

(פרס "to split, break bread")

= /ś/ [ɬ]

(פרש "to spread out, stretch over")

= //=sh [ʃ]

(פרש "to give a clear decision")

צ = /ṣ/ [].
Less likely [
ʦ͡ ] [ts͡']

(פרץ "to break through")

BHIH
[BHIH] = [IH]

and [THCSP IS-ENG] (present)

ז = /z/ [z]

(פרז "to be isolated")

ס = /s/ [s]

identical in pronunciation to
= /ś/ [s]

(פרס "to split, break bread" identical in pronunciation to פרש "to spread out, stretch over")

= =sh [ʃ]

(פרש "to give a clear decision")

Non-existent. Replaced by
צ = /ṣ/ [ ʦ͡]

Palatals-velars

EBHP (c. 850-550 BCE) and TH (c. 850 CE)

ג = /g/ [ɡ]

(גבל */gaˈbal/ "he marked a boundary")

= /k/ [k]

(כבל "binding")

ק = /q/ []

(קבל "receiving")

(פרק "to tear away")

BHIH
[BHIH] = [IH]

and [THCSP IS-ENG] (present)

ג = /g/ [ɡ]

(גבל [gaˈval] "he marked a boundary")

= /k/ [k] identical in pronunciation to
ק = /q/ [k]

(כבל "binding" identical in pronunciation to קבל "receiving")

non-existent

 

 


Table 40

Sound Shifts Between EBHP and IH

EBHP

*/EBHP/ *[EBHP]

(c. 850-550 BCE)

IH
[IH] = [BHIH]

(present)

Hebrew Letter

// [ʔ]